Fatah und Hamas: Palästinensische Zerissenheiten und die Auswirkungen auf die Beziehungen zu Israel ab 10.99 € als epub eBook: Der israelisch-palästinensische Konflikt. 1. Auflage. Aus dem Bereich: eBooks, Fachthemen & Wissenschaft, Politikwissenschaft,
War is not an independent phenomenon, but the continuation of politics by different means. - Carl von Clausewitz, On War. In May 2011, President Barack Obama gave speeches about the Middle East that discussed the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, using terms like "final status issues," "1967 lines with mutually agreed swaps," and "demographic realities." Obama's speeches were strongly denounced by both the Palestinians and the Israelis, while political commentators across the world debated what Obama's speeches actually meant. Welcome to the Middle East conflict, a conflict that is technically 63 years old and counting but has its roots in over 2,000 years of history. With so much time and history, the peace process has become laden with unique, politically sensitive concepts, like the right of return, contiguous borders, secure borders, demilitarized zones, and security requirements, with players like the Quartet, Palestinian Authority, Fatah, Hamas, the Arab League, and Israel. Over time, it has become exceedingly difficult for even sophisticated political pundits and followers to keep track of it all. On October 6, 1973, Syria and Egypt caught Israel off guard during the Jewish holy holiday of Yom Kippur, surprise attacking the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. Although they initially made gains, the Israelis turned the tide within a week, going on the counteroffensive, and winning the war within 3 weeks. The Yom Kippur War was the last concerted invasion of Israel by conventional Arab armies, but it underscored how entangled the West and the Soviet Union had gotten in the region. The British and French had been allied with Israel in the 1950s, including during the Suez Canal War, and the United States assisted Israel by providing weapons as early as the 1960s. As a way of counteracting Western influence, the Soviets developed ties with the Arab nations. The Yom Kippur War: The History and Legacy of the 1. Language: English. Narrator: Bill Hare. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/093191/bk_acx0_093191_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Mr. President, I wish to tell you something personal - not about me, but about my generation. What you have just heard about the Jewish people's inherent rights to the Land of Israel may seem academic to you, theoretical, even moot. But not to my generation. To my generation of Jews, these eternal bonds are indisputable and incontrovertible truths, as old as recorded time. - Menachem Begin"We don't need legitimacy. We exist. Therefore we are legitimate." - Menachem BeginThe conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians is over 70 years old and counting but has its roots in over 2,000 years of history. With so much time and history, the Middle East peace process has become laden with unique, politically sensitive concepts like the right of return, contiguous borders, secure borders, demilitarized zones, and security requirements, with players like the Quartet, Palestinian Authority, Fatah, Hamas, the Arab League, and Israel. Over time, it has become exceedingly difficult for even sophisticated political pundits and followers to keep track of it all.Israel has rarely reached agreements with its neighbors, and when it did so at the end of the 1970s, it was accomplished by a prime minister who was one of the nation’s most famous military officers. After the Yom Kippur War, President Jimmy Carter’s administration sought to establish a peace process that would settle the conflict in the Middle East, while also reducing Soviet influence in the region.On September 17, 1978, after secret negotiations at the presidential retreat Camp David, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed a peace treaty between the two nations, in which Israel ceded the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in exchange for a normalization of relations, making Egypt the first Arab adversary to officially recognize Israel. Carter also tried to create a peace process that would settle the rest of the conflict vis-à-vis the Israelis and Pal 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jim D. Johnston. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/158306/bk_acx0_158306_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The product of painstaking research and countless interviews, A High Price offers a nuanced, definitive historical account of Israel's bold but often failed efforts to fight terrorist groups. Beginning with the violent border disputes that emerged after Israel's founding in 1948, Daniel Byman charts the rise of Yasser Arafat's Fatah and leftist groups such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine--organizations that ushered in the era of international terrorism epitomized by the 1972 hostage-taking at the Munich Olympics. Byman reveals how Israel fought these groups and others, such as Hamas, in the decades that follow, with particular attention to the grinding and painful struggle during the second intifada. Israel's debacles in Lebanon against groups like the Lebanese Hizballah are examined in-depth, as is the country's problematic response to Jewish terrorist groups that have struck at Arabs and Israelis seeking peace. In surveying Israel's response to terror, the author points to the coups of shadowy Israeli intelligence services, the much-emulated use of defensive measures such as sky marshals on airplanes, and the role of controversial techniques such as targeted killings and the security barrier that separates Israel from Palestinian areas. Equally instructive are the shortcomings that have undermined Israel's counterterrorism goals, including a disregard for long-term planning and a failure to recognize the long-term political repercussions of counterterrorism tactics. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Luke Truan. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/adbl/011543/bk_adbl_011543_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
“De la sangrienta historia de la nación judía, aprendemos que la violencia que comienza con el asesinato de judíos termina con la propagación de la violencia y el peligro a todos los pueblos, en todas las naciones. No tenemos otra opción que atacar a las organizaciones terroristas dondequiera que podamos llegar a ellas. Esa es nuestra obligación hacia nosotros mismos y hacia la paz”. Golda Meir Durante la Guerra de los Seis Días en 1967, las fuerzas israelíes atacaron repentinamente el Sinaí en respuesta a la violación por parte de Egipto de un tratado anterior que permitía el paso de barcos israelíes a través del importante Estrecho de Tirán. En una campaña relámpago, las fuerzas israelíes bien entrenadas y bien dirigidas, equipadas con vehículos y aviones americanos y franceses, destrozaron decisivamente a las fuerzas armadas egipcias de baja calidad. Cuando Jordania y Siria atacaron a Israel en apoyo de Egipto, los israelíes también aplastaron sus fuerzas. Israel adquirió la mayor parte del Sinaí, además de ocupar Cisjordania, la Franja de Gaza y los Altos del Golán. El 8 de mayo de 1972, un nuevo estilo de guerra salió a la luz cuando cuatro miembros de la Organización Septiembre Negro, una rama amorfa del movimiento Fatah, secuestraron el vuelo belga 571 de Sabena en ruta de Bruselas a Tel Aviv. Please note: This audiobook is in Spanish. 1. Spanish. Nicolas Villanueva. http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/114962/bk_acx0_114962_sample.mp3.
At 10:00 a.m. on September 12, 1972, Prime Minister Golda Meir appeared before a special session of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament. Wasting no time, the austere, chain-smoking grandmother addressed a full house of 120 members. "I want to share my plans with you," she said. "I’ve decided to pursue each and every one of them. Not one of the people involved in any way will be walking around on this earth for much longer. We will chase them to the last." These determined and resolute words were spoken in reference to the surviving operatives and planners of one of the most audacious terrorist attacks mounted against Israel since the founding of the nation in 1948. A week earlier, on September 5, 1972, eight Palestinian terrorists belonging to the Black September faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) entered the Olympic Village in Munich, West Germany, and took 11 Israeli athletes and team members hostage. After a lengthy standoff and a bungled rescue operation, all 11 were killed. Black September was a shadowy and loosely configured organization, the nature and structure of which has been disputed by historians and journalists since it first appeared in 1972. It is generally regarded as a splinter group of Fatah, although some sources claim that it was simply a smokescreen used by Fatah to avoid direct complicity in certain operations. Other sources claim that it represented an ideological and tactical break from the traditional Fedayeen, with a more international complexion to its organization and structure. Either way, it was an extremist group shut down by the PLO in September 1973, on the anniversary of its creation, ostensibly because of a withdrawal of the PLO from terrorist operations abroad. The key element of Golda Meir’s speech was the sense of outrage felt by the Israeli people against an act that transgressed both the essential principles of the Olympic Games and the unwritten charter of the Israeli people, 1. Language: English. Narrator: Dan Gallagher. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/108823/bk_acx0_108823_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
In May 2011, President Barack Obama gave speeches about the Middle East that discussed the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, using terms like “final status issues”, “1967 lines with mutually agreed swaps”, and “demographic realities”. Obama’s speeches were strongly denounced by both the Palestinians and the Israelis, while political commentators across the world debated what Obama’s speeches actually meant. Four months later, in September, the Palestinians sought statehood at the United Nations. Why would the Palestinians go to the UN after President Obama had made clear for months that the US would ultimately prevent any attempt at Palestinian statehood with its veto in the Security Council?Welcome to the Middle East conflict, a conflict that is technically 63 years old and counting but has its roots in over 2,000 years of history. With so much time and history, the peace process has become laden with unique, politically sensitive concepts like the right of return, contiguous borders, secure borders, demilitarized zones, and security requirements, with players like the Quartet, Palestinian Authority, Fatah, Hamas, the Arab League, and Israel. Over time, it has become exceedingly difficult for even sophisticated political pundits and followers to keep track of it all.Until now. Decoding the Conflict Between Israel and the Palestinians cannot solve the peace process, nor does it heap credit or blame on any of the sides. This book goes about breaking down all the terms often thrown around in the Middle East that make the peace process a political minefield, and one that both beginners and sophisticated followers have a hard time keeping up with. Serving as both a glossary and primer of the history of the Middle East conflict and the peace process, Decoding the Conflict Between Israel and the Palestinians defines the terms, looks at the region’s history, discusses previous attempts at negotiations like Oslo and Taba, identifies importa 1. Language: English. Narrator: Bill Hare. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/121826/bk_acx0_121826_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians is technically 69 years old and counting, but it has its roots in over 2,000 years of history. With so much time and history, the Middle East peace process has become laden with unique, politically sensitive concepts like the right of return, contiguous borders, secure borders, demilitarized zones, and security requirements, with players like the Quartet, Palestinian Authority, Fatah, Hamas, the Arab League and Israel. Over time, it has become exceedingly difficult for even sophisticated political pundits and followers to keep track of it all. Nearly a century before the state of Israel was founded in 1948, Palestine was under the control of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, consisting mostly of Arabs. During the 1850s, Jews began settling in small villages across the lands that once comprised Judea and Samaria, which the Jews considered their ancient Biblical homeland. These efforts to buy property were driven by the motivation of some Jews to help reestablish the land as the Jewish homeland. These Jews became known as Zionists, in reference to Zion, which is often thought of as a reference to all of Israel but is in fact a reference to part of Jerusalem. The Zionists attempted to establish a Jewish National Fund that would assist Jews in buying land in Palestine for Jewish settlement. In the middle of World War I, the British pledged their support to the Zionist cause and the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine through the Balfour Declaration of November 1917. At the time, the British realized the strategic importance of Palestine because it was near the Suez Canal, and they saw the Zionists as potentially helpful allies in the region following the war. British foreign secretary Arthur James Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild on November 2, 1917, declaring the government’s “sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations,” and favoring “the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the J 1. Language: English. Narrator: Colin Fluxman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/100730/bk_acx0_100730_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
“From the blood-drenched history of the Jewish nation, we learn that violence which begins with the murder of Jews ends with the spread of violence and danger to all people, in all nations. We have no choice but to strike at terrorist organizations wherever we can reach them. That is our obligation to ourselves and to peace.” (Golda Meir) “July 4, 1976, was a great day to be an American, and a great day to be Jewish, and was, I am assured, an absolutely sensational day to be American and Jewish.” (George Will) During the Six-Day War in 1967, Israeli forces struck suddenly into Sinai in response to an Egyptian violation of an earlier treaty agreement that allowed Israeli ships passage through the important Straits of Tiran. In a lightning campaign, the well-trained and well-led Israeli forces, equipped with American and French vehicles and aircraft, shattered the low-quality Egyptian army forces decisively. When Jordan and Syria attacked Israel in support of Egypt, the Israelis smashed their forces also. Israel acquired most of the Sinai, as well as occupying the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights. Since the Six-Day War established Israel’s military supremacy, Palestinian opposition developed a new strategy, and a greater emphasis began to be placed on covert, guerrilla actions against Israel and the development of organizations to carry out such attacks. On May 8, 1972, a new style of warfare came to the fore when four members of the Black September Organization, an amorphous branch of the Fatah movement, hijacked Belgian Sabena Flight 571 en route from Brussels to Tel Aviv. To buy time, the Israeli security establishment agreed to allow Flight 571 to land at Lod International Airport, southeast of Tel Aviv, where it was immediately escorted to the far end of the tarmac. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Bill Hare. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/112412/bk_acx0_112412_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.